Category Archives: Diagnostics

New Salmonella Dublin test for milk and cattle available for first time in US

Salmonella can cause serious disease on cattle farms, killing calves, causing cows to abort, contaminating raw milk, and harming humans along the way. While the cattle-adapted strain Salmonella Dublin creeps into the Northeastern US, veterinarians and farmers struggle to catch the bacteria in time to protect livestock because these bacteria often hide dormant in carrier animals, making the strain particularly hard to diagnose.

For the first time in the US, a more useful test for Salmonella Dublin is now available exclusively at the Cornell University College of Veterinary Medicine’s Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC). Cheaper, quicker, safer, and more sensitive, the test detects antibodies rather than bacteria. Traditional bacteriological tests could only identify S. Dublin organisms in sick or deceased animals, missing up to 85% of infections in carrier cattle. The new test reveals carriers, helping farmers and veterinarians monitor infection spread over time and track the impact of control measures in ways that were previously impossible.

Dairy-cows-Pavement“We’re very concerned about this disease spreading east because it could severely harm animal and human health, as well as the livelihoods of dairies in the region,” said Dr. Belinda Thompson, senior extension associate at the AHDC. “Salmonella Dublin is already common west of the Mississippi River, but it’s only recently being recognized in the Northeastern US. We want to be pro-active now to keep it out of our farms.”

In recent years the AHDC has dealt with several high-morbidity and high-mortality outbreaks of Salmonella Dublin in New York and other states. To address the problem before it grows further, Dr. Bettina Wagner, director of the Serology and Immunology Section of the AHDC laboratory, secured the nation’s first USDA permit to import and use the enhanced test.

While Salmonella Dublin usually doesn’t make adults cows very sick, it can wreak havoc on young and unborn calves, particularly in populations like those in the East Coast that haven’t been exposed. Its resistance to many common antibiotics severely limits treatment options and, to make matters even worse, it often presents as respiratory disease, throwing off track veterinarians trained to recognize diarrhea as salmonella’s telltale sign.

“Infected calves often look fine the day before a sudden rapid onset, the next day they look depressed, and the next day they die,” said Dr. Paul Virkler, senior extension associate at the AHDC. “Veterinarians often think it’s something else-. We’ve seen newly infected herds in which every single calf in a particular age group dies. We’re trying to keep this from getting to baby calves, the life and future of a farm, and the animals most at risk.”

People working with cattle are also at risk. All Salmonella strains affect most vertebrates and can jump between species. Even carriers that don’t seem sick can shed bacteria, and people, companion animals, and other livestock can pick up the infection through contact with any bodily excretion.

“People have died drinking raw milk with Salmonella Dublin,” said Virkler. “It’s one of the bad players in raw milk. Pasteurizing milk will kill the bacteria.”
Prior to the new test’s release, testing had to be done animal by animal. The new antibody test can use milk samples straight from bulk milk tanks to find whether a herd has been exposed. It can also work with blood samples and diagnose individuals, helping keep unexposed herds infection-free by removing infected animals and pre-screening new animals farmers are considering buying.

“Herd managers can take preventative measures and help control the infection’s spread by isolating sick calves, pasteurizing milk, managing cattle movement, and improving hygiene,” said Thompson. “But to see if any of this is working, they need a tool to monitor success. We didn’t have that until now. This test will let us learn about the prevalence of Salmonella Dublin on the East Coast and hopefully nip it in the bud.”
cows in field

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http://vet.cornell.edu/news/Dublin.cfm

Media Hits:

Cornell Chronicle

http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/Oct12/SalmonellaDublin.html

Meat Trade News Daily

http://www.meattradenewsdaily.co.uk/news/291112/usa___a_lack_of_understanding_over_salmonella_.aspx

MyScience

http://www.myscience.us/wire/cornell_offers_only_u_s_salmonella_dublin_test_for_cattle-2012-cornell

The Post Standard: Syracuse.com

http://blog.syracuse.com/farms/2012/11/better_test_for_cattle_disease.html

Phys.org

http://phys.org/news/2012-11-cornell-salmonella-dublin-cattle.html

Drovers CattleNetwork.com

http://www.cattlenetwork.com/cattle-news/Cornell-offers-only-US-salmonella-dublin-test-for-cattle-176821551.html?ref=551

Bovine Veterinarian Online

http://www.bovinevetonline.com/news/industry/Cornell-offers-only-US-salmonella-dublin-test-for-cattle-176821551.html

USAgNet

http://www.usagnet.com/story-national.php?Id=2486&yr=2012

Dairy Herd Network

http://www.dairyherd.com/dairy-news/latest/Cornell-offers-only-US-salmonella-dublin-test-for-cattle-176821551.html

Food Safety News

http://www.foodsafetynews.com/2012/11/cornells-new-test-spots-salmonella-in-cattle/

Ithaca Journal

http://www.theithacajournal.com/article/20121111/NEWS01/311110027/Cornell-test-detects-salmonella-cattle?odyssey=mod|newswell|text|FRONTPAGE|p

Before It’s News

http://beforeitsnews.com/food-and-farming/2012/11/cornells-new-test-spots-salmonella-in-cattle-2446024.html

Healthy Cooking News

http://healthycookingnews.blogspot.com/2012/11/cornells-new-test-spots-salmonella-in.html

Beef Cattle News

http://savant7.com/beefcattlenews/

Stop Foodborne Illness

http://www.stopfoodborneillness.org/content/cornell%E2%80%99s-new-test-spots-salmonella-cattle

MeatingPlace

http://webcache.googleusercontent.com/search?q=cache:lnLu6SjDDeMJ:www.meatingplace.com/Industry/News/Details/37578+&cd=2&hl=en&ct=clnk&gl=us

Highbeam Business

http://business.highbeam.com/409224/article-1G1-310739927/cornell-offers-new-salmonella-test-cattle

CABI.org VetMed Resource

http://www.cabi.org/VetMedBeta/news/22617

The Meat Site

http://www.themeatsite.com/meatnews/19365/cornell-offers-us-salmonella-dublin-test-for-cattle

Ticks untold

Prime suspects in mystery fevers may hold new tick-borne diseases
Suddenly your horse is sick and you don’t know why. She breathes normally but her temperature is rising, her eyes grow yellow with jaundice, she seems depressed, and barely eats. The fever is clear but the cause is not; even the most experienced experts can offer no concrete answers. Eventually the fever fades, but is that the end of whatever caused it or is the source still lurking somewhere inside?

Horse owners across the states are facing this distressing scenario. At the Cornell University Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC), Dr. Linda Mittel fields a growing number of calls about these mysterious fevers of unknown origins (FUOs). Many come from the Northeast, Mid-Atlantic, and Great Lakes areas: the nation’s topmost hotbeds of human tick-borne disease. This pattern led Mittel to suspect that the culprits of the fever caper could be ticks and the difficult-to-diagnose diseases they carry.

“Tick-borne diseases are some of the fastest growing emerging diseases in the United States right now,” said Mittel. “As ticks continue expanding their numbers and geographic range these diseases may affect new areas. We get calls about fevers at broodmare operations, showbarns, and farms where race horses rest or layup, even in areas where they didn’t know they had ticks. But horses moving between states can move ticks with them, and the effects of this movement are starting to show.”

Mittel and colleagues at the AHDC are embarking on a project to find just what diseases ticks in hotbed zones are carrying and whether they are behind the wash of mystery fevers in horses. The study will use samples from horses suffering FUOs to look for bacterial infections known to be transmitted by ticks (Anaplasma, Babesia, Borrelia, Ehrlichia, and Rickettsia) as well as other bacteria known to cause non-respiratory infection in horses (Leptospira, Bartonella, and Neorickettsia.)

These agents are considered emerging infectious diseases in humans, and this will be the first study determining their presence in horses with FUOs. The study will also sample ticks found on or near horses in designated areas to find which pathogens they carry and to potentially discover previously undocumented tick-borne pathogens.

Many tick-borne diseases are sensitive to specific drugs; others are not sensitive to antibiotics at all. Knowing which diseases are at the root of FUOs will help veterinarians treat them effectively. It will also help owners understand how the causes of fevers might impact affected horses’ futures in racing, performance, or showmanship.

“I’m quite excited to start solving the mysteries of these fevers and to possibly uncover new previously unrecognized diseases – in horses and people,” said Mittel. “If these agents are in the horses, humans may also have them without realizing– people who work with these horses might be particularly at risk. Knowing what we’re dealing with here will hopefully solve the mystery of FUOs and help equine and human medicine recognize and address the growing onslaught of tick-borne disease.”

This research is funded by the Harry M. Zweig Memorial Fund for Equine Research.

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Life-saving surgery inspires gift to help the hospital see inside ailing wildlife

When their dog, Buzz, faced a life-threatening condition in October 2009, Richard and Stacy Hoffman drove their Scottish terrier six hours from Maryland to Cornell University Hospital for Animals, where a timely surgery saved his life.

Their experience inspired several donations to the Companion Animal Hospital, and as strong supporters of animal welfare they were keen to learn more about the College’s commitment to animal care. The Hoffmans oversee a family foundation that funds projects supporting otherwise overlooked wildlife. When they took a tour of Cornell’s Janet L. Swanson Wildlife Health Center, which provides hospitalization and medical care to sick or injured wild animals brought in by the public with the goal of releasing them back to their original habitat, they knew they had found a match.

“Some wildlife species get a lot of attention while others that might not be quite as ‘sexy’ fall under the radar,” said Richard Hoffman. “It’s important to us and to Earth’s ecosystems that species don’t dwindle because no one noticed or cared. We took a tour of the Center and saw the work they do helping local wildlife and training students who could someday translate that experience to a greater scale, and we wanted to give something tangible to help.”

Through a gift from their foundation, the Hoffmans helped the Center purchase four pieces of imaging equipment that will provide invaluable diagnosis and treatment options for the animals treated at the Center while simultaneously building a multimedia library usable for teaching and research in wildlife medicine.

“The biggest new piece is an endogo®HD, a totally portable, wireless, high-definition endoscopic imaging platform that can record, store, and play back images and videos taken from inside an animal’s body, making it particularly useful for diagnosis and teaching,” said Dr. George Kollias, Jay Hyman Professor of Wildlife Medicine and Chief of the Center. “We also purchased a small-diameter rigid endoscope for birds and small mammals that allows veterinarians to use surgical instruments to take biopsies, retrieve ingested foreign bodies, and conduct minimally invasive surgeries.”

For their tiniest patients, the Center purchased a fully functional miniature endoscope. Finally, all endoscopes were updated with new, more powerful light sources.

“We use this technology to help diagnose and treat wildlife when laboratory tests and other diagnostics don’t provide definitive answers,” said Kollias. “It lets us use minimally invasive techniques to visualize the organ surfaces and to take tissue samples if organs or tissues safely. The equipment is also particularly useful in species for which there is little or no published clinical laboratory data or disease description.”

The Hoffmans hope their gift will help veterinarians, students, and researchers find ways to prevent future problems in wildlife and promote research to help wildlife.

‘Scopes Magazine
February 2012

Endoscopy all the way down

endoscopeWhen you need to see “guts,” endoscopy gives the inside scoop. Recent advances in endoscopic technology have led to smaller endoscopes that can go further into the body, see more clearly, take bigger samples, and serve a wider array of patient needs. The gastroenterology section of Cornell’s Hospital for Animals now utilizes new lines of updated fiber-optic technology.

The first-ever slimline large-channel portable veterinary endoscopes can connect to a lightweight laptop and easily be moved to an animal. This makes them particularly useful in surgery or for bringing to animals that should not be moved. When flexible endoscopy is not the answer, it may be time to swallow a pill. Wireless capsule endoscopy provides high-quality imaging throughout the entire GI tract without requiring anesthesia. Each single-use “Endo capsule” made by Olympus employs a tiny camera that takes pictures all the way through the digestive system and transmits data wirelessly to a receiver worn by the patient.

“We choose the most suitable imaging technology for each patient” said Dr. Kenneth Simpson, professor of internal medicine and gastroenterology. “Portable endoscopes work well in the surgery room. Capsule endoscopy is a great option for pets that cannot be anesthetized safely, or in cases when you need to see the entire gut. It can’t take tissue samples but it can help determine the nature and severity of intestinal damage and whether further intervention is needed. It is likely to be particularly useful in investigating the source of gastrointestinal bleeding.”

The gastroenterology and parasitology sections have teamed up to use capsule endoscopy for research sponsored by pharmaceutical company Novartis to safely validate anti-parasitic drugs.

Slimline large-channel biopsy-capable endoscopy, portable endoscopy, and capsule endoscopy are now available for clients and referring veterinarians.

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CUHA Beat

http://www.vet.cornell.edu/news/Endoscopy.cfm

Sharing the wealth

Professor emeritus continues serving the community and the profession

If Noah’s ark sails again it could make a fruitful boarding stop in the office of Howard Evans, BS ’44, PhD ’50. A microcosm of biodiversity, this miniature museum is decked floor to ceiling with animal specimens from across the globe. Yet it models only a brief sample of the expansive zoological knowledge Evans holds. This professor emeritus is a proficient anatomist whose life is rich with stories of worldwide adventures, a tireless fascination for how life is built across kingdoms, and an equal delight in sharing this beauty with others.

“Everyone should know some anatomy because it’s the basis of how animals act and what they do,” said Evans. Since joining the Veterinary College’s Department of Anatomy in 1950, he has taught thousands of veterinarians the inside story of how animals work, with courses spanning species from farm to domestic to exotic.

With a joy in teaching as indiscriminate as his joy in nature, he advised Cornell’s undergraduate zoology club, served on 37 graduate committees, and spent 20 summers teaching the AQUAVET program for aspiring aquatic specialists. This generous collaborative spirit extended to his colleagues at the College, where he served as Secretary of the Faculty for twelve years and chaired the department of Anatomy for ten.

He has served the profession’s future through over 160 publications, including his seminal text, Miller’s Anatomy of the Dog, which he and Sandy deLahunta are currently updating to a new full-color edition. He has edited several anatomy journals, and served as consultant for anatomy programs in universities including Tufts, University of Georgia, UC Davis, and international universities in Grenada, South Africa, Zimbabwe, Taiwan, and Japan.

For Evans, retirement means more time for teaching. “Leading trips for Cornell Adult University (CAU) has been good fun, and gave me the chance to collect more specimens for Cornell’s Museum of Vertebrates,” said Evans. Since retiring in 1986 Evans has led scores of Cornell alumni across the world in over a dozen educational expeditions through CAU. Traveling to New Guinea, Australia, Tanzania, Kenya, and more, his recent Antarctic expedition introduced him to the Gentoo penguin skeleton now adorning his desk.

With bins brimming full of tangible treasures including stuffed animals, bones, fossils, and more, Evans now takes his show on tour. The energetic 88-year-old regularly presents on natural history topics across Cornell, including at Alice Cook House, where he is a Faculty Fellow and frequently dines with undergraduate residents. He and his wife, Erica, continue yearly pilgrimages to teach fish structure at Cornell’s Shoals Marine Lab, and he still gives anatomy lectures at the College.

His natural treasures and world of experience fascinate children at local elementary schools, where his visits are in high demand. Twice a week in the fall he gives classrooms a taste of nature’s spectacular show and tell.

“Teachers try to encourage kids to ask questions. But when they get excited about nature they just love to tell stories,” Evans laughed. As a storytelling scientist gifted at both these arts, Evans can relate.

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‘Scopes Magazine
July 2011

Cornell receives $500,000 to tackle salmonella in tomatoes

tomatoTwo experts from Cornell are teaming up to tackle salmonella contamination in produce, thanks to a $500,000 grant from the Agriculture and Food Research Initiative through the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA).

Cornell was one of 24 institutions to receive such grants to reduce food-borne illnesses and deaths from microbial contamination. Craig Altier, a salmonella specialist at the Animal Health Diagnostic Center at Cornell’s College of Veterinary Medicine, will work with Greg Martin, Cornell professor of plant pathology and plant-microbe biology and an expert on tomato disease resistance at the Cornell-affiliated Boyce Thompson Institute for Plant Research, to investigate how salmonella interacts with tomatoes with the hope of finding ways to stop its spread.

“My lab explores how salmonella interacts with animal intestinal tracts,” said Altier, associate professor of population medicine and diagnostic science. “Bacteria are very frugal creatures; they turn genes on and off only when they need to. They only turn on the genes that make animals sick when they know they’re in an animal, and we want to know how this process works in plants. We will look at which bacterial genes turn on when salmonella enters a tomato and try to figure out how to intervene.”

salmonellaUnwittingly sharing our food with unseen organisms sends thousands to the hospital each year. Some 50 million Americans get sick every year after consuming food-poisoning pathogens, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and 3,000 of those cases are fatal. Salmonella bacteria pose the biggest food-borne health threat in the United States. While the quest for cleaner food reduced cases of many food-borne pathogens during the past 15 years, salmonella infections continue to rise.

Altier will grow mutant strains of salmonella in his lab to study how the bacteria affect tomatoes when they lack certain genes. He will take strains to Martin’s lab to test them on tomato plants while Martin studies the plants’ immune responses. After running them through the course of infection, Altier will remove the salmonella from the plants to analyze in his lab.

“A number of recent salmonella outbreaks started with contaminated produce,” said Martin. “My lab studies how the tomato immune system acts against certain bacterial pathogens, and this new project will test whether the plant immune system interferes with salmonella’s ability to survive on leaves and fruits. If it does, we may be able to breed new varieties that suppress salmonella growth, which could have implications for lessening salmonella contamination in many different crop plants.”

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Original Press Release:

College of Veterinary Medicine news

http://www.vet.cornell.edu/news/tomatoes.cfm

Media Hits:

Cornell Chronicle

http://www.news.cornell.edu/stories/June11/Salmonella.html

Bionity

http://www.bionity.com/en/news/133272/cornell-receives-500-000-to-tackle-salmonella-in-tomatoes.html

My Science

http://www.myscience.cc/en/wire/cornell_receives_500_000_to_tackle_salmonella_in_tomatoes-2011-cornell

US Ag Net

http://www.usagnet.com/state_headlines/state_story.php?tble=NY2011&ID=560

South Dakota Ag Connection

http://www.southdakotaagconnection.com/story-national.php?Id=1372&yr=2011

Bionity

http://www.bionity.com/en/news/133272/cornell-receives-500-000-to-tackle-salmonella-in-tomatoes.html?WT.mc_id=ca0265

 

New Lyme disease test for horses and dogs will help improve treatment

Bettina WagnerRomping through summer fields seems like a harmless pleasure for dogs, horses and humans alike. But just one bite from the wrong tick can rob an animal of that pastime. The bacteria Borrelia burgdorferi catch rides with certain species of ticks and can cause Lyme disease in animals the ticks bite. Catching the disease early is paramount because it becomes progressively harder to fight as the bacteria conduct guerilla warfare from hiding places in the joints, nervous tissues and organs of their hosts.

A new test for Lyme disease in horses and dogs, developed by researchers at the Animal Health Diagnostic Center (AHDC) at the College of Veterinary Medicine at Cornell, will improve our understanding of the disease and pinpoint time of infection, opening possibilities for earlier intervention and more effective treatment plans.

“We’ve offered Lyme disease testing for years,” said Bettina Wagner, the Harry M. Zweig Associate Professor in Equine Health and lead developer of the test, “but we have recently been able to improve our techniques with the multiplex testing procedure. The new test exceeds its predecessors in accuracy, specificity and analytical sensitivity.”

The multiplex procedure, which can detect three different antibodies produced in response to the bacteria associated with Lyme disease using a single test on the sample, eliminates the need for separate tests. In addition, it requires smaller samples and answers more questions about the disease. Multiplex technology has been used for the last decade, but the AHDC is the first veterinary diagnostic laboratory to use it to test for Lyme disease.

Different kinds of antibodies can be found in the body at different stages of infection. The new test can distinguish and measure these differences, giving more information about the timing of the disease.

The bacteria that cause Lyme disease are particularly difficult to detect, according to Wagner, because after infection they tend to hide where they can’t be found. They bury in the joints of dogs, causing arthritis or lameness. Serious kidney disease has also been associated with Lyme infections in dogs. In humans and horses, they also burrow into the nervous system, in the spine or the brain, causing pain, paralysis or behavioral changes. By the time such clinical signs appear, the bacteria are usually not in circulation anymore.

Horse“Now we can distinguish between infection and vaccination and also between early and chronic infection stages,” Wagner said. “That was not possible before. You were able to say whether an animal was infected, but not when it was infected, or how far the infection had developed.”

The test and information the test provides can help veterinarians make advanced decisions about treatment. After the long treatment period ends, veterinarians usually conduct follow-up testing to see if it was successful.

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Cornell Chronicle: June 16, 2011
http://www.vet.cornell.edu/news/lymeassay.cfm